Compendio de Derecho Nobiliario

Don Rubén Gavaldá de Gevaudan
Prince of Septimania and Sovereign Count of Gevaudan

This article first appeared in Spanish in the Winter 2016 issue of Knightlife Magazine.


Singularities of the monarchy and the nobility.

Royal prerogatives and their depositories.

The Holy Roman Empire. The Gotha.



The overall theme that we and the individual who started it is necessary and substantial starting from the concept of dynasty, it defines a group of rulers of a State coming directly or indirectly from a monarchist; her family is its core and epicenter. These families break at a certain moment in the history of a nation as sovereign family, the Royal family, the maximum of the village leaders and representatives will originate.


What defines Royal families is a centuries-old tradition with the same conduct; based on a heritage of traditions and behaviors in relation to certain values, concerns and points of view of life, which are transmitted from generation to generation; This makes it possible to ensure a succession of people fully identified with certain types of responsibilities and form a Government to exercise.


The dynasties are produced by history, and collected by the time. The existence of a monarchy and the Royal families is independent of any success or institutional failure that surrounds them; Accordingly the Republican system does not have the power to undo history and break the traditions.


The doctrine and jurisprudence have reaffirmed that territorial power is not essential for the exercise of the dynastic prerogatives, which are linked and you own the person of the sovereign, which preserves such conditions, even after the loss of the throne, and that happens with regularity and legitimate right to their heirs and successors.


It is be to take into account the difference between the concepts of dynasty and Royal House. Dynasty is the set of sovereigns, Princes, and suitors, which belongs to a lineage with a common ancestor. In a country, there may be several dynasties, with successive reigns, and each maintains its traditions and peculiarities. Real House a happily prevailing or entity in resulting exile usually weddings, various branches of the family, etc.


A sovereign, happily prevailing in his country, is treated as the tradition and the local Constitution determines which may be any of the following official titles: Emperor, King, Prince sovereign, sovereign Duke, sovereign count, etc. The monarch is the head of State, carries out international relations, and is the maximum symbol of that nation; representative of his Crown and traditions. As President ensures the balance between the three traditional powers (legislative, Executive and judicial), functioning as authentic and effective institutional balance. When you lose the territorial power, the monarch also lost the powers of effective control ("ius imperii" and "ius gladii"), but will retain the dynastic prerogatives ("jus majestatis" and "ius honorum"), which, as already mentioned, are inalienable to his person. He will assume the title of Chief of the name and arms of the Royal House, now in exile, this condition is recognized by the international tradition, such as "Pretender" to a specific throne, and between their dynastic powers, to intervene in all claims of titles of nobility of its jurisdiction, recognizing them, validating them, as well as creating and granting new titles, in its sole discretion.


The dynastic prerogatives remain "ad aeternum" in an ancient former reigning family, but return to the functions of them as heads of State is not secured by any Convention; This peculiarity is that in modern societies, the choice of rulers belongs to the people either through their representatives or by the expressions of popular will, called a plebiscite. If it determined that the institution of the monarchist is valid and accepted governance, it would result in the return of the last reigning House suitor, as likewise if any other precedent, considering the constituent Assembly the right to call a former ruler or any of its descendants and Enthrone him, or choose between representatives of old dynastic families with legitimate right and raise it to the actual function. As an example, we cite to the courts of Spain, who approved the appointment of Prince don Juan Carlos de Borbon y Borbon to succeed Franco, to the detriment of another Royal pretender, Prince don Carlos Hugo de Borbón y Parma, also holder of legitimate rights to claim to the throne of Spain. Juan Carlos de España is a clear demonstration of how a dynasty can return to reign: enthroned in 1976, after a long period of dictatorship, is grandson of a King and the father of a future King to be King but son of an Earl who never came to reign his people.



Christian thinkers such as Augustine, Hobbes or Bossuet supported the theory of divine right as the primary dynastic prerogative. This doctrine has been replaced by another, more in keeping with the mindset of the current people, talking about the constitutional concept. In one case or the other, the doctrine and international jurisprudence have respected the sovereignty as a concept that encompasses the exercise of the following four dynastic rights:


(1) "Ius imperii": which translates as the right to send, to govern a nation. Modern conception in constitutional monarchies says that the King "Queen but not govern.", but is in fact the moderator of the exercise of power.


(2) "Ius gladii": i.e., the right to impose obedience and enforce its orders. At present, this power is exercised with the Supreme command of the armed forces of the nation.


(3) "jus majestatis", which is the right to be protected and respected in accordance with the laws and international treaties.


(4) "Ius honorum", understood as the right to reward virtue and merit award or confirmation of nobility and degrees of knighthood within those that belong to the heritage of his dynasty.


These rights are inherent in the person of the sovereign, inseparable, inalienable and imprescriptible. The monarch may, however, and for personal reasons abdicate them in favour of another Member of his family, with legitimate rights. The dynastic rights above are transmitted entirely and solely to their descendants, heirs or successors, without limitation lines or degrees, through another law called "Ius sanguinis", i.e. the right of blood.


A sovereign (or their descendants) that it has lost the territory and are in exile without having committed never debellatio retains the full exercise of the rights referred to except the "ius imperii" and "ius gladii", which will be potential, i.e., suspended temporarily until the time of return to the exercise of sovereignty.


At the dawn of the 21st century it seems surprising to the survival of a political system that based its legitimacy on the historical tradition, although it is true that survives thanks to the support of his subjects, as without their trust, their existence would be impossible. Therefore, we can say that the monarchy is an institution that is based both in history and the will of the people, expressed in the Constitution.


A former monarch can claim the throne, instance is transmitting hereditary in perpetuity. For this reason, the direct heirs to Thrones extinct receive treatment of suitors. Due to the historic and dynastic requirements that converge in the person of the pretender is not a common citizen since it is subject to public international law.


The head of a former Royal family retains the title and the heraldic attributes inherent to the last ruler of his family, whose territorial power has ceased. Your responsibility in the exercise of that right, is grant and confirm shields of arms, execute, acknowledge, confirm and renew the nobility "in illo tempore", i.e. at that time. A monarchy can be overthrown by popular decision or what is most common, under the so-called "coups". In such cases, the ruler and his family went into exile, in some cases, the prohibition on temporary or permanent return to their homeland.


The doctrine conceptualized a phenomenon known as 'debellatio' as explicit and formal renunciation of the monarchical system of Government and political and institutional to another system of Government acceptance. The head of name and arms of a royal dynasty so acting, by voluntarily accepting the break institutional, loses ipso facto the possibility to claim for himself and his successors, the throne who has corresponded with him.


Sovereign perpetuity and those deposed without sacrificing dynastic qualities are recognized by international jurisprudence. A sovereign family will not be a mere and particular princely family, but a true and own dynasty, which retains the right to be honored, respected, and protected by international law. In essence the sovereign remains the King, still living in exile or in private life, since their prerogatives are you own from and by birth, staying and transmitting them over time, from generation to generation. A sovereign from his exile can raise the degree of nobility to any person unless you can be branded as illegitimate or illegal; This is based on their sovereign prerogatives to which it never relinquished, and therefore always remains the owner of the right as sovereign in exile. It is also noteworthy that the princely and sovereign houses in exile do not require acknowledgement by the Government of its country of origin, or the local government where they have their residence. They have dynastic and political independence of another State. As citizens, however, they are obliged to submit to the General legal principles that are common to all the inhabitants of the country of residence.


A former reigning sovereign and former family has no limitation of time for the State of exile (we refer to the exile in order to preserve the dynasty), this will keep its prerogatives "in pectore et in potentia", with its intrinsic qualities imprescriptible and inalienable, through the centuries, until they are restored to the throne of his ancestors. During the interregnum, the dynasty retains its traditions and can exercise the "ius conferendi" at the discretion of his boss. Dynasties in exile do not receive State funds and their members live their own resources, carrying out professional activities as ordinary citizens, working silently and on their own account, on a voluntary basis, in the areas of education, health and assistance to people in need, for example.


A sovereign enthroned according to the accepted traditions, kept their dynastic prerogatives "ad aeternum", regardless of whether it is or not in the exercise of State power. With the enthronement, with the effects of the consecration, the current mandate falls indelibly in his person forever, and is transmitted to his heirs or successors. Away from the temporal power, the monarch becomes ex-gobernante, but always have the personal quality of King, with inherent to their status protocol treatments.


Dynasties can be classified into:


I) prevailing: acting effectively as a monarchical head of State, are the representatives of the countries; its external relationship is governed by norms, treaties and the provisions of the international public and diplomatic law. As head of State, its internal position is defined by the Constitution and the laws of your country.


(II) recently deposed dynasties: i.e. within one period of less than a century


(III) dynasties deposed with a term of more than one century: typically calls as memorials. In this context, are considered as dynasties memorials those families whose ancestors have wielded supreme power over a nation, whose current representatives distance themselves from the throne for more than three generations, i.e., more than one century.


The former reigning monarch with the title of Chief of name and arms of their dynasty can validly carry out formal acts, grant or recognize noble actions, the Organization of protocol services for your home, the maintenance of diplomatic relations with heads of State, monarchs or other leaders in exile. Also you can organize, create or restore orders of knighthood of the heritage of his family, as well as appoint ambassadors and Ministers. Obviously, these appointments are merely honorary, and try to maintain social and cultural relations amen to represent the Royal family in exile.


Former monarchs can claim the vacant throne, this perspective of law is hereditary, transmitted in perpetuity, for this reason, the direct heirs to Thrones extinct, vacant or occupied by another dynasty, called the suitors. The heads of dynasties memorials can be appointed as guardians of the Royal Crown and national traditions.


If the holder does not have valid for blood offspring may appoint a successor that has no blood link with it, this resource is called: aristocratic heraldic adoption. We know that the succession should always be kept blood link with the family, but at the prospect of the extinction of the dynastic rights due to lack of heirs, an adopted child in monarchy can be named, by putting in place in the future a new dynasty that will be recognized and honored, as was its predecessor. The appointment will be formalized by an act of the dynastic head, in full exercise of its powers, usually with proper protocol before notary and public proclamation of the graceful and free Act.


As epilogue of this chapter we will refer to two great institutions: the first is the Sacrum Romanum Imperium, known since the 13th century as the Holy Roman Empire: was a political entity of the Western Europe, with its epicenter in Germania, born in the year 800 with the coronation of Charlemagne, first emperor of the West, and completed in 1805 with the abdication of its last holder the emperor Francis. The concept of sacred derives from the figure of the Pope who usually, not always, participated in the election, crowned or eventually acknowledged to the chosen; at the same time it ratified to the elect in the Chair of St. Peter. Instead the denomination of Roman was symbolic in memory of what it was and I represent this at some point.


The Holy Roman Empire was an entity established by the Church to serve, not a universal sovereignty, but a kind of leadership over all the Kings of the West. The emperor could not give an order to the King of France, but it was the natural leader in the fight against the heretics, in the domain of the adversaries of the Church. There were then two Supreme monarchies, first the Pope and the emperor. Under Pope, to open the entire ecclesiastical hierarchy as a fan. Under the Emperor, all monarchies and then all the feudal and municipal structures opening up also as a fan. On one side the King, and on the other the Pope. Above the King, the Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, above all ("reductio ad unum") the Supreme Pontiff.


This relationship of legitimacy through the sacred throne the crowns they received special treatment and titles, by what was up and happily reigning Royal houses today is: the King of Hungary, Apostolic King; the King of France, all King; the King of Spain, Catholic King; the King of Portugal, most faithful King; and the King of England, defender of the faith.


In 1963 the Association of noblemen of sacred Roman Empire was created to bring together the descendants of various invested as Nobles to the Holy Roman Empire, also, including a number of honorary members. This Association of Nobles was founded by Prince Giovanni Allita di Montereale and count Giancarlo Bonifazi de Statte. Its Chancellor is Prince Mario Pignatelli Aragona Cortés (descendant of Prince Ferdinando Pignatelli Aragona Cortés founder and second President of the Heraldry Institute of Buenos Aires). They form part of this Noble institution, in its different areas, count Giancarlo Bonifazi de Statte, Prince Domenico Napoleone Orsini, don Carlo de los príncipes Giovanelli, the Marquis Henri de Thoran, the Marquis de Cosimo Dragonetti Torres, among many others.

The Association of the nobility of the Holy Roman Empire for many centuries has been preserved for the defense of the Christian faith. Today it consists formally of the old and new families of the Holy Roman Empire and is, therefore, a closed Association. The Holy Roman Empire manages its own traditions through the surviving families, and has never suffered any and less even than the domination of any foreign power interference.


We emphasize the essence of this international organization constituted by a United and loyal group of nobility which share the same goals and ideals.



The second institution to mention is the Almanac Gotha, a metonymy in book form that originated in the mid-17TH century in the city of German Gotha, where he was to meet members of the Royal houses of noble families. It had an uninterrupted Edition until in 1945 Soviet rule banned it, it was reborn under the auspices of the King Juan Carlos de España. The Gotha Almanac Edition is a guide to royalty in the world, but not the only one.


The first edition of this Yearbook genealogico-heraldico - diplomat was made in 1763 under the patronage of the Princess Louise Dorothea of Saxe-Meiningen, Duchess of Saxe-Gotha, his Edition was in German (local language) and French (language of the courts).


The first Almanac de Gotha consisted of two parts, a genealogical and other diplomatica-estadistica containing a detailed list of senior officials and agents diplomats from all States of the world; This second part is not already published. The genealogical part was in turn divided into three sections: places and dates of birth, marriage, titles, positions, decorations, etc. Commented the genealogy of former reigning Royal, reigning or former families from all over the world. Specifying the genealogy of the old houses relevant of the Holy Roman Empire, princely and County with law of equal birth with sovereign houses. I will review the genealogy of the most important princely houses and non-sovereign Ducal in Europe, among other important data.


The main language in the beginning of the Holy Roman Empire was logically German, although there were also many other languages that were used to it. English was not an official language within the Member States of the Holy Roman Empire; but both this and the German language evolved to become the two major Germanic languages. Between the V and IX centuries, Germanic tribes such as the angles, Saxons, Lombards, Franks, and others invaded England. It is from the angles and the Saxons originated the terms Anglo-Saxon and Anglican.

The old English is a West Germanic language, closely related to the Saxon and old Frisian; This primitive English is also known as Anglo-Saxon. There was talk between the mid-5th century and the middle of the 12th century. The English language, as such, began to develop at the end of the 11th century; through it the Germanic languages were linked to the romantic languages.

The Normans ruled England during the period of the conquest of the 11th century, making it the French language was inappropriate and beginning to be replaced by the English invaders. Today English, modern is the successor language direct that English medium and continues to be the main link between the family of Romance languages and Germanic languages, such as French, Italian, latin, and the Spanish language.

1650-1702, the House of Orange ruled Great Britain. From 1714 onwards the House Hanover has held the British Throne. His Government effectively brought a supremacy of the English language in the Holy Roman Empire. In fact, Jorge I, King of England and his successors were prominent and influential Princes electors until the Government of Queen Victoria. Today, the House Hanover still reigns in Britain under the name of Windsor, a name adopted during the first world war due to the conflict presented by its Germanic origins.


The current release, limited by the way, epicenter of London Edition has been simplified and are just mention prevailing or exiled houses, houses of the Holy Roman Empire and some other Princely houses and Ducal less influential in Europe. Some revisionists history intended to affirm today that original almanacs, as the Almanac de Gotha, were legal documents, but were in fact not. They were simply an early version of a "Who's who" among the royalty and nobility and served mainly as a social register. The fact that a name or title does not appear often says a lot about the petty nature of editors and their supporters who deliberately omitted this to many, who appeared as well as "less reliable", an ancient and common tactic that currently continues basically by Internet.


Constitute a third instance the international directory of houses sovereign and Nobles known as the Almanac of Würzburg.


Several monarchies, sovereign houses and States have maintained a register of members of the Royal and noble houses for a long time. The Almanac de Gotha served as a form of social register private and published until the end of the 18th century since its official records were destroyed by the Soviets in 1944. In this unfortunate situation of diligent researchers found medieval data in archives of Würzburg in the former residence Wurzburger, Germany. The Würzburger Residenz, was the official residence of the Prince-Bishops of Würzburg, the castle is considered one of the best examples of Baroque architecture. The Principality-bishopric of Würzburg was a State of the Holy Roman Empire from 1168 until 1803, when it was absorbed by the electorate of Bavaria. In 1805, he became an independent State again as the electorate of Würzburg. The following year it was renamed the Grand Duchy of Würzburg. The residence has argued for a long time the Würzburg files that date back to the time of the Prince-Bishop. The data that were found there helped form the basis for the Almanac of Würzburg, it is a historic and useful directory that compiles the ancient and the modern aristocracy. The Almanac includes reigning and non-reigning houses, houses sovereign, data of the high nobility, and a list of nobles of many Nations. Its latest edition dates back to July 2014 in commemoration of the 846 of the State of Würzburg.


Surely there are many other institutions that gather the nobles in different latitudes of the world, named as a corollary to the fraternity international of noble houses titled founded in South America at beginning of 21st century and the Noble company of Santa Maria of Walsingham in North America.





Titles, dation, loss and confirmation classes





Etymologically the word noble, comes from the latin "nobilis", and defines someone who stands out for his virtues. The word "nobilis", is a middle term between "notabile" (notable) and "noscibile" (known) and describing a magnanimous person and elevated feelings. This first meaning is the original, and corresponds to the so-called moral nobility. From this meaning derives a second later, that might be called Civil nobility or policy, and that it corresponds to a privileged social status.

Nobility was formerly synonymous with privilege and of belonging to a social order differentiated and hierarchically superior, for example in Spain where King Alfonso XIII until the nobles with greatness had Passport diplomatic, today is not so though belonging to the same open even many doors, and close others.

There was always a person ennobled for the first time, is elevated to the nobility by another individual regio in full, valid and I lawful use of his "fons honorum". This primitive nobility is called the privilege given that it holds "ex novo" (for the first time) by a graceful as a reward for his military exploits, heroic attitudes, merely by loyalty and faithfulness to the cause of his Lord or motu proprio of this. This mercy could be "ad personam" i.e. only the person that would gratify, we can mention as an example to Antonio Devoto nominated count on his surname by King Víctor Manuel III, a few months before his death; or also to grant it "ad perpetuam" i.e. in perpetuity with the ability to transmit to their heirs by primogeniture male or female or who wanted to leave it, what constitutes a new so-called nobility of blood, either, by descend from a noble ancestor; who has rights to others to inherit and want the title will always need to be valid, the confirmation of the same by stop of the name and arms of the grantor dynasty Chief, therefore it is not legal or valid to say that you are noble by inheritance if it is a confirmed title.


Nobility is also understood as the quality or condition of noble; likewise defines the Assembly of nobles considered a privileged social class who, either by law or by a sovereign award, enjoy special privileges. Many nobles often grouped into related, such as aristocratic corporations the jurisdiction in Hispanic America of Hidalgos of charters of New Granada and Rio de la Plata.


The titles can have different origins, but always by legal acquisition, as honorary rights which are, the titles are out of trade between the men and are not susceptible of that takes place upon them any kind of commercial transaction. They can be newly created, obtained by succession, authorization and rehabilitation (both direct rehabilitation, judicial).


It is appropriate to define the terms, dignity and title. Dignity, from the latin "dignitas" refers to enhancement and Excellence Office or honorary employment or authority. Title, on the other hand talks about a noble, like baron or Marquis dignity with which a sovereign distinguishes some of its citizens; It carries the name of a place which are the highest among them, e.g. count of Torrelavega; or a surname as we gave the example in the case of don Antonio Devoto, count of devotee; or a memorable event, landform or a Saint, for example is that of Doña Ana María Dávila Porcel Lorenzetti, Baroness de san Jorge, of happy memory and who had opportunity to meet personally.


The titles of nobility, are dignity granted by the sovereign Lords, a person, whether you are a citizen of your country or abroad, such as praise for a creditable record in any of the areas of life: Labor (jobs, research...), or social (humanitarian work, social improvements, etc.) In summary, we can say, that the titles are social recognition given to discretion by a certain work or merit.


We know that the titles originally had to do with geopolitical administration of a Kingdom, but beginning in the 14th century the reality of the titles difumó and that many of them were purely honorary, conferred by diploma or patent letter which is also known as letter of ennoblement, pragmatic, decree or you real cedula.


The increasing order of the titles is:


1 noble (no specific title): actually it is not a formal title but a form of courtesy to those who didn't come from the title and are near a titled noble brothers or relatives.


2. Knight: were the children called cadets of nobles, were excluded from the inheritance to the eldest son (law of Majorat). They had two possible to be socially paths: to devote themselves to life religious or Knight. The Knights were put to the service of other nobles, or towns or monasteries; many had spared no resources to do by the way that was of some of some stronghold. The Church transformed these adventurers into a real order, a social class with precise rules, and a moral code of behavior, which included among others: loyalty, the defense of the weak, and justice. Controversy exists about whether it implies or not nobility, according to our criteria, but there are orders dynastic giving it as a prerogative of the income in this Corporation.


3. baron: of great importance in the Holy Roman Empire and the French Kingdom since they were members of the high aristocracy, they should own fiefdom which answered directly to the sovereign.


4 Viscount: who took the place of the count when it went to court. Originally in the 10th century was use of the French institution.


5. Count: was the first title of nobility which indicated to the companion of the Emperor, and in whom he trusted and delegated.


6. Marquis: born in the 9th century in the Organization of the Carolingian Empire, later as head of a count.

7. Duke: originally in the Byzantine and Lombard Italy was an officer with civil-military functions; in free time disappears to return at the end of the 14th century as a noble title, the highest awarded by some crowns.


8 Prince (not blood): little granted given that causes confusion with the sons of a monarch in exercise or dynasties memorials in exile who use it as a synonym for Monarch; in the United Kingdom it is only used by members of the Royal family.


9. other: elector of the Holy Roman Empire chose the Emperor (something similar happens at present with the College of Cardinals and the Pope); Prince of blood are those belonging to the Royal family being relatives of the King: children, grandchildren, etc.; relatives of the King, are United by ties of blood, but not in a direct way, for example: cousins, nephews, etc.; Hereditary Prince is the first in the line of succession to the throne; Prince Consort is the husband of the Queen.


Titles granted "ex novo", that is to say for the first time, any outside, they are given by the regio Lord of motu proprio, regio Act and must not be flawed or the use of the "fons honorum", i.e. no should mediate pressure or cohesion in the offeror, as nor should it have the person who accepts it and receives. Publicly, are granted one of its conditions intrinsic to its validity, since you must have witnesses and be public. (Received by heirs) already confirmed titles do not need this solemnity and notoriety but the novelty and news will be given publicly announced by means deemed necessary.


The modes in which the nobility can be acquired are: by granting: when title is awarded to the person who is worthy of the same on different grounds or merits; by inheritance: when the title is inherited by way of succession; marriage: when the title holds as consort of a person with a title.


The titles, in turn can be: lifetime: i.e. When are borne by the owner until his death; perpetual and hereditary: are those that hold for the lifetime of the owner and then passed to his heirs. The inheritance can be "ad infinitum" or limited to one or more generations that are stated in the award document.


By its nature, could also could carry out the following classification: vested titles: they are those that are granted by a patent letter of concession, it is a title "ex novo"; refreshed titles: those who are claimed by people who are considered worthy of it (titles extinct for lack of heir, for being in possession of a person which should not belong, etc.); Titles recognized: they are those titles granted abroad but that are recognized in other different "fons honorum" sovereign and country and that you want to use. Recognition is equal to the confirmation and authentication of the title. When this authentication they become confirmed titles; and confirmed titles: are those where an heir is obliged to submit documents and request a license for use of the title that has the authority to "jure mutuae".


The Royal houses, in exile or not, retain a protocol copy of titles granted with Protocol, carried date and file number generally by or in the custody of the Chancellor's House.


The titles are owned by each owner?, the specific answer is, no. Is a wrong tradition thinking that the title is perpetual ownership of a family originally its depositary, given that the title always belongs and is linked to a "fons honorum" the licensor; It is as if they were being enjoyed by a graceful. Therefore they may lose it?, the response returns to be specific, if. The titles may lose basically for the following reasons: death of the holder; lack of claim of the inheritance; lèse majesté: i.e. proceed with serious offense against the real person, successor or Regent. They are also cause for cancellation of the noble worship: libel, prejudicial in some way against the Crown or the nation, or simply by motu proprio of the name and arms of the dynasty awarding head who no longer sees the graceful person reason to exalt it. It is commonly said that the title returned to the Crown.



Certain nobility titles, mostly of the heads of the extinct Royal houses, with the expression of titles of pretence, not being correct have been validated. Thus, explained that the heir of the branch of the Orleans from France used the title of count of Paris claim; just as after the renunciation of his rights to the succession, the infante don Alfonso de Borbón, son of Alfonso XIII, he used the title of count of Covadonga claim; in the same way that has been expressed that the brother of the former, infante don Jaime, used after his resignation to his dynastic rights to the Crown of Spain the title of pretence of Duke of Segovia; and recently, talking about the count of Saint Germain, heir to the Principality of Transylvania.


Titles of claim are those who use the sovereigns, relating to territories that are no longer within the territory in which exert their own sovereignty to have been dispossessed the dynasty of the exercise of the power in that area.


Let's look at the example in don Felipe VI King of Spain, which holds the title of pretence of Duke of Burgundy since it is successor of rights of which were sovereign Dukes of that independent nation. Or the title of pretence of Duke of Milan, who also holds the sovereign as inheritor of the rights to that place. Or the title of pretension of King of Jerusalem, that the King of Spain has also. I.e., the title of pretension is a sovereign in demand of their rights lost to the sovereignty of a territory which boasts.


On the other hand, expressions of waiting or degree of memory, refer to uses a sovereign or a Crown Prince while he is not the exercise of power, well by having moved the institutional form of the State, either by having seen the throne occupied by another dynastic branch. This title of pretension will be maintained until the restoration of monarchy in the nation as or until the expulsion of the usurpante dynastic branch. Thus, the title of Admiral don Juan de Borbón awaiting was the count of Barcelona; the title of waiting for the head of the branch of Orléans is the count of Paris; the title of the dynast don Carlos, seventh of the Carlist numbering waiting, was the Duke of Madrid; and the title of the Kings of the two Sicilies in exile is the Duke of Calabria.


Finally, is means that the title incognito is which effectively reigning monarchs used to go unnoticed, to maintain anonymity, due to circumstances that thus advise him. It is the case of the title incognito from Duke of Toledo used the King Alfonso XIII as the owner of a stud farm of competition.






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